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Federalism by Jill CottrellFederalism Issues in Designing a Federal System by Jill Cottrell in english language Download Powerpoint file Read more

संघीय प्रणाली प्रारुपका सवालहरुFederalism Issues in Designing a Federal System by Jill Cottrell in Nepali language Read more

Janajati

Tin Gaule Thakali (Yhulkosompaimhi)

Tin Gaule tThakali of the five villages of Mustang district, Syang, Thini, Chimang, Chhairo and Marpha, those indigenous people living in the three villages of Syang, Thini and Chimang, who are called Syantan, Thintan or Thinel and Chimtan, are called Teengaule Thakali. Thakalis are of three types: Tamang Thakali, Mawtan Thakali or Yhulkosompaimhi. In other words, the Teengaules and Yulkhosompaimhi are particularly known as Syangtan, Chimtan and Thintan (Vinding, 1998:19-20). There are only 35 houselholds of Chimtans in Chimang, their original home or mainstay, and their population there is 151. Besides that, there are 11 households in Kathmandu, Pokhara, Marpha and Tanahu. In 2000, the total population of Chimtan was estimated at 257 (Jhendi Magar, BS2057). Likewise, there are 96 households and a population of 596 in Syang who have a population of 746 in Jomsom, Pokhara, Butwal and Kathmandu. Thintans have 97 households and a population of 599 in Thimi with an estimated total population of 549 in the whole of the kingdom (ibid).

The language of Teengaule Thakali falls within the Tibeto-Burman family of languages. It is slightly different from the languages of Marphalis, Tamang or Tamhang Thakalis. The christening of a newborn is done in a period of three to nine days and the process is performed by their own priest, Lama. Mother's brother has a prominent role in the first haircut of a child. Marriage is done in two ways: by formally asking the girls parents or by capturing the girl in question. The process of capture starts from giving a gift to the girl. The boy sends a fingerring to the girl through some friends and, if the girl agrees, the boy's side captures the girl when she comes out of her house to a nearby jungle, farm, water tap, etc (ibid). The practice of cross-cousin marriage is very much in vogue. Teengaule Thakalis are Buddhists. Bon tradition is still existent among some of them, particularly in Thini. If someone dies they perform mourning rites in accordance with Lama or Bon or Jhankri (Thom) tradition and a close relative lights the funeral pyre in cremating the corpse.

Teen Gaule Thakalis have their own traditional democratic political institutions like village assembly, government, rules and laws. The village assembly frames laws and appoints the government. The government provides security, punishes those who violate rules, protects property of the village, maintains public utilities like roads, bridges, etc, manages pastures and forests, conducts religious and social functions and administers justice. Like other Thakalis, their main festival is Toranla and Phalh. Although traditionally animal husbandry and agriculture are the main occupations of Teengaule Thakalis, trade has become their main occupation today. Like Dhikur of other Thakalis, a financial institution for loan and savings schemes of their own is found in the society of Teengaule Thakalis also. This financial institution is called ‘Breko' or Brehkhor (Vinding, 1998:128).

Chimtan
ImageChimtan, Shyantan and Thintan are seldom referred as Yhulkosompaimhi or Tingaunle Thakali according to their ancestral village. Chimtans are the inhabitants of one of the Panch (five) Gaun or villages between Kagbeni and Tukuche in the district of Mustang. Their village is known as Chimada or Chimang. They have affinity of language and culture with the Thakalis. Though Buddhists, they also practice shamanism. There are two branches of Chimangs - 1) Bhamphobe and 2) Dhyalkipal Phobe. Commerce is their main profession with farming, horticulture and animal husbandry as side businesses.

Thintan
ImageThintans are the inhabitants of Thini village. Thintans are from among the larger Panch Gaunle or five-village confederation. Thintans have six branches - Omthin, Tapothin, Chhothin, Chakithin, Dhangyangthin, and Langlangthin. The latter seem to have vanished now. Though some Thintans have adopted Buddhism, the old still adhere to Bon-po. Thintans are inherently traders, and practice farming and horticulture on the side.

Syangtan
ImageThe Buddhist Syangtans belong to the Panch Gaunle confederation. They live in the village of Syang situated in the middle of Tukuche and Jomsom of Mustang District. There are 596 syangtans (96 households) in Syang village and about 25 families have been migrated to Jomsom, Pokhara, butwal and Kathmandu. They, like Thintans, are also similar to Thakalis. They are divided into the sub-clans of Sakar, Syangten, Pasing, San, Chi, Jhisin, Kya and Shren Phobe. Girls are eloped for marriage in this community. This arrangement is called Raholiboba. Their language is akin to the language of Thintan and Chimtan. Mostly traders, Syangtans are also engaged in farming and horticulture.

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