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Federalism by Jill CottrellFederalism Issues in Designing a Federal System by Jill Cottrell in english language Download Powerpoint file Read more

संघीय प्रणाली प्रारुपका सवालहरुFederalism Issues in Designing a Federal System by Jill Cottrell in Nepali language Read more


Siyar (Chumba)

Siyars live in the northeastern reamote parts of Gorkha District, locally known as Tsum, Buri Gandaki's tributary valley of the Siac Khola. They are called Siyars because they live on the banks of the Siyar River. They are locally known as Chumbas. As they are living on the trade route, they are involved in trading. Their main occupations are farming and trade with Tibet. Some of their habits resemble those of the Gurungs in the south. They are Buddhist, and they maintain equal footing with the Tibet-influenced Nubriba community. Some of the male Siyars or Chumbas are literate in Tibetan language and script. But most of them are illiterate in Nepali language and Devanagari script.

ImageThe Siyars are known by that name as they live on the banks of the Siyar River in the northern parts of Gorkha and Dhading. They are known as Chumba in the local language (Ukyab and Adhikari, BS2057:63). To the west of the Siyar live the Larke. The Siyars are engaged in farming even more than the Larkes. Many customs of Siyars are similar to those of the Gurungs living to the south; however, they primarily resemble the Tibetans to the north. The Siyar River between the Himalchulli and Manaslu to the west and Ganesh Himal to the east is the main settlement area of the Siyar. There is plenty of monsoon rainfall in the area; compared to other Himalayan regions there is sufficient rainfall (Bista, 1996:203). The population of Chumbas or Siyars of Siyar village has not been enumerated, but according to the estimates of Gorkha and Dhading DDC their population is around 1,000.

The language of Siyar has affinity with the Tibetan language. Their birth, marriage and death rites are similar to those of the Tibetans. Like the Tibetans the Siyars also wear bakkh, docha, etc. Being inhabitants of the Himalayan region, their food habits and clothes resemble those of the north. But their culture to some extent has resemblance also with that of the Gurungs (Sharma, BS2045).

The social system of Siyar is similar to other Tibetan communities, and joint family is prevalent among them. Siyars, like the Larkes, adhere to the Buddhist religion. The centre of activity for them is the monastery. The main occupation of Siyars are trade and farming. Given that the area inhabited by Siyars receives plenty of rainfall, agricultural production is abundant. The Siyars also raise livestock besides farming. Apart from farming and livestock raising, trade with Tibet is the primary activity for them.

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